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5G塑料专题:常用高分子材料(塑料)的介电常数

发布日期:2020-1-3 13:15:05 访问次数:32

5G时代信号的传输速度也会远快于4G信号,就要求材料对信号的干扰小、介电常数小,保证大数据传输不受干扰。那么什么是介电常数,各种材料的介电常数又是多少?介质在外加电场时会产生感应电荷而削弱电场,介质中的电场减小与原外加电场(真空中)的比值即为相对介电常数(relative permittivity或dielectric constant),又称诱电率,与频率相关。介电常数是相对介电常数与真空中绝对介电常数乘积。如果有高介电常数的材料放在电场中,电场的强度会在电介质内有可观的下降。理想导体(金属)的相对介电常数为无穷大

 

根据物质的介电常数可以判别高分子材料的极性大小。通常,相对介电常数大于3.6的物质为极性物质;相对介电常数在2.8~3.6范围内的物质为弱极性物质;相对介电常数小于2.8为非极性物质。

 

同理,我们根据高分子材料的极性也可以大致推测材料介电常数大小,极性基团多,介电常数高,极性基团少介电常数小。下面是常见材料的介电常数的大小:

 

聚合物

最低值

最高值

HIPS Flame Retardant V0

2

3

PCTFE - Polymonochlorotrifluoroethylene

2

3

PMMA - Polymethylmethacrylate/Acrylic

2

5

FEP - Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene

2.1

2.1

PFA - Perfluoroalkoxy

2.1

2.1

PTFE - Polytetrafluoroethylene

2.1

2.1

PMP - Polymethylpentene

2.1

3.6

HDPE - High Density Polyethylene

2.3

2.3

LDPE - Low Density Polyethylene

2.3

2.3

LLDPE - Linear Low Density Polyethylene

2.3

2.3

PMP Mineral Filled

2.3

2.3

PP, 10-40% Mineral Filled

2.3

2.3

PP, 10-40% Talc Filled

2.3

2.3

PP (Polypropylene) Copolymer

2.3

2.3

PP (Polypropylene) Homopolymer

2.3

2.3

PP, Impact Modified

2.3

2.3

UHMWPE - Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

2.3

2.3

PMP 30% Glass Fiber-reinforced

2.4

2.4

PS (Polystyrene) Crystal

2.4

2.7

PS, High Heat

2.4

2.7

HIPS - High Impact Polystyrene

2.4

4.8

ABS High Heat

2.4

5

ABS High Impact

2.4

5

PS (Polystyrene) 30% glass fiber

2.5

2.5

EVA - Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

2.5

3

SAN - Styrene Acrylonitrile

2.5

3.4

ECTFE

2.57

2.59

ETFE - Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene

2.6

2.6

PP - Polypropylene 10-20% Glass Fiber

2.6

2.6

PP, 30-40% Glass Fiber-reinforced

2.6

2.6

PPE - Polyphenylene Ether

2.7

2.7

PPE, Flame Retardant

2.7

2.7

PE - Polyethylene 30% Glass Fiber

2.7

2.8

ABS - Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene

2.7

3.2

SMA - Styrene Maleic Anhydride

2.8

2.8

ABS Flame Retardant

2.8

3

MABS - Transparent Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene

2.8

3

PC - Polycarbonate, high heat

2.8

3.8

PPE, 30% Glass Fiber-reinforced

2.9

2.9

ABS/PC Blend - Acrylonitrile Butadiene  Styrene/Polycarbonate Blend

2.9

3.2

PMMA (Acrylic) Impact Modified

2.9

3.7

PBT - Polybutylene Terephthalate

2.9

4

PA 66, Impact Modified

2.9

5

PC/PBT Blend - Polycarbonate/Polybutylene  Terephthalate Blend

2.95

3.14

PTFE, 25% Glass Fiber-reinforced

3

3

PSU - Polysulfone

3

3.2

PPS - Polyphenylene Sulfide

3

3.3

ASA/PC Blend - Acrylonitrile Styrene  Acrylate/Polycarbonate Blend

3

3.4

PC (Polycarbonate) 20-40% Glass Fiber

3

3.5

PC (Polycarbonate) 20-40% Glass Fiber Flame  Retardant

3

3.8

CP - Cellulose Proprionate

3

4

LCP Glass Fiber-reinforced

3

4

PA 6-10 - Polyamide 6-10

3

4

PBT, 30% Glass Fiber

3

4

PEI, 30% Glass Fiber-reinforced

3

4

PEI, Mineral Filled

3

4

PET - Polyethylene Terephtalate

3

4

PET, 30% Glass Fiber-reinforced

3

4

PETG - Polyethylene Terephtalate Glycol

3

4

POM (Acetal) Low Friction

3

4

PVC Rigid

3

4

PVC, Plasticized

3

5

PVC, Plasticized Filled

3

5

LCP Mineral-filled

3

5.9

CPVC - Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride

3

6

PVDC - Polyvinylidene Chloride

3

6

CAB - Cellulose Acetate Butyrate

3

7

CA - Cellulose Acetate

3

8

PA 11, Conductive

3

9

PA 11, Flexible

3

9

PA 11, Rigid

3

9

PA 12 (Polyamide 12), Conductive

3

9

PA 12, Fiber-reinforced

3

9

PA 12, Flexible

3

9

PA 12, Glass Filled

3

9

PA 12, Rigid

3

9

SRP - Self-reinforced Polyphenylene

3.1

3.1

ABS/PC Blend 20% Glass Fiber

3.1

3.2

PEI - Polyetherimide

3.1

3.2

PI - Polyimide

3.1

3.55

ASA/PC Flame Retardant

3.2

3.2

PEEK - Polyetheretherketone

3.2

3.2

SMMA - Styrene Methyl Methacrylate

3.2

3.2

PEEK 30% Carbon Fiber-reinforced

3.2

3.4

SAN, 20% Glass Fiber-reinforced

3.2

3.8

PMMA (Acrylic) High Heat

3.2

4

LCP - Liquid Crystal Polymer

3.3

3.3

PAR - Polyarylate

3.3

3.3

PEKK (Polyetherketoneketone), Low Cristallinity  Grade

3.3

3.3

SMA, 20% Glass Fiber-reinforced

3.3

3.3

ASA - Acrylonitrile Styrene Acrylate

3.3

3.8

PPS, 20-30% Glass Fiber-reinforced

3.3

3.8

PC/PBT blend, Glass Filled

3.3

3.9

PEEK 30% Glass Fiber-reinforced

3.3

4.2

POM - Polyoxymethylene (Acetal)

3.3

4.7

PPSU - Polyphenylene Sulfone

3.4

3.5

PA 46 - Polyamide 46

3.4

3.8

PA 66, Impact Modified, 15-30% Glass Fiber

3.4

4.2

Amorphous TPI Blend, Ultra-high heat, Chemical  Resistant (Standard Flow)

3.5

3.5

PESU - Polyethersulfone

3.5

4.1

PA 66, 30% Glass Fiber

3.5

5.6

PSU, 30% Glass finer-reinforced

3.6

3.7

PPA, 33% Glass Fiber-reinforced – High Flow

3.7

3.9

PARA (Polyarylamide), 30-60% glass fiber

3.9

4.5

PAI - Polyamide-Imide

3.9

7.3

PPS, 40% Glass Fiber-reinforced

4

4

PPA, 30% Mineral-filled

4

4.2

POM (Acetal) Impact Modified

4

4.3

PA 46, 30% Glass Fiber

4

4.6

PA 6 - Polyamide 6

4

5

PA 66 - Polyamide 6-6

4

5

PA 66, 30% Mineral filled

4

5

PESU 10-30% glass fiber

4.2

4.3

PAI, 30% Glass Fiber

4.2

6.5

PPA - Polyphthalamide

4.3

4.3

PPA, 33% Glass Fiber-reinforced

4.4

4.6

PPA, 45% Glass Fiber-reinforced

4.4

4.6

PA 11 - (Polyamide 11) 30% Glass fiber reinforced

4.8

4.8

EVOH - Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol

4.8

5.6

PPS, Glass fiber & Mineral-filled

5

5

PVDF - Polyvinylidene Fluoride

6

9


目前大家探讨比较多是5G工程塑料,主要分为薄膜产品(LCP,PI等用在线路板,天线)、还有就是结构件(注塑成型),如低介电LCP、PBT、PPO、PPS等。选材中既要满足介电常数低又要满足力学性能、化学性能、电性能等因素。改性塑料的介电常数跟基材的分子结构有关,同时也跟增强/填充材料的介电常数有关


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